Naphthalene is a crystalline white solid hydrocarbon, with the empirical formula C10H8. It is volatile, forming a flammable vapor. It is predominantly manufractured from coal tar, and can be converted to phthalic anhydride for the manufacture of plastics, dyes (pigments) and solvents. Naphtalene used to be the intermediate for production of indigo-blue which was the dye to color the jeans. Naphtalene is also an intermediate for the production for chemicals in the leather industry. One of the major applications of naphtaline nowadays is a sulfonated form which is used as a fluidizer in concrete and gypsum improving flowability of the concrete mixture and ultimatelly increasing strength of the concrete structure. A more specific application of naphtalene is the use of it as a buildingblock to produce a synthetic lubricant for car-engines.It is also used as an antiseptic and insecticide, especially in mothballs.